Publications

573 Publications visible to you, out of a total of 573

Abstract (Expand)

Mutations in pre-mRNA processing factors (PRPFs) cause 40% of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (RP), but it is unclear why mutations in ubiquitously expressed PRPFs cause retinal disease. To understand the molecular basis of this phenotype, we have generated RP type 11 (PRPF31-mutated) patient-specific retinal organoids and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC). Impaired alternative splicing of genes encoding pre-mRNA splicing proteins occurred in patient-specific retinal cells and Prpf31+/− mouse retinae, but not fibroblasts and iPSCs, providing mechanistic insights into retinal-specific phenotypes of PRPFs. RPE was the most affected, characterised by loss of apical-basal polarity, reduced trans-epithelial resistance, phagocytic capacity, microvilli, and cilia length and incidence. Disrupted cilia morphology was observed in patient-derived-photoreceptors that displayed progressive features associated with degeneration and cell stress. In situ gene-editing of a pathogenic mutation rescued key structural and functional phenotypes in RPE and photoreceptors, providing proof-of-concept for future therapeutic strategies. eTOC PRPF31 is a ubiquitously expressed pre-mRNA processing factor that when mutated causes autosomal dominant RP. Using a patient-specific iPSC approach, Buskin and Zhu et al. show that retinal-specific defects result from altered splicing of genes involved in the splicing process itself, leading to impaired splicing, loss of RPE polarity and diminished phagocytic ability as well as reduced cilia incidence and length in both photoreceptors and RPE.

Authors: Adriana Buskin, Lili Zhu, Valeria Chichagova, Basudha Basu, Sina Mozaffari-Jovin, David Dolan, Alastair Droop, Joseph Collin, Revital Bronstein, Sudeep Mehrotra, Michael Farkas, Gerrit Hilgen, Kathryn White, Dean Hallam, Katarzyna Bialas, Git Chung, Carla Mellough, Yuchun Ding, Natalio Krasnogor, Stefan Przyborski, Jumana Al-Aama, Sameer Alharthi, Yaobo Xu, Gabrielle Wheway, Katarzyna Szymanska, Martin McKibbin, Chris F Inglehearn, David J Elliott, Susan Lindsay, Robin R Ali, David H Steel, Lyle Armstrong, Evelyne Sernagor, Eric Pierce, Reinhard Luehrmann, Sushma-Nagaraja Grellscheid, Colin A Johnson, Majlinda Lako

Date Published: No date defined

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Abstract (Expand)

Background: Although the reference genome of Solanum tuberosum group Phureja double-monoploid (DM) clone is available, knowledge on the genetic diversity of the highly heterozygous tetraploid group Tuberosum, representing most cultivated varieties, remains largely unexplored. This lack of knowledge hinders further progress in potato research and its subsequent applications in breeding. Results: For the DM genome assembly, two only partially-overlapping gene models exist differing in a unique set of genes and intron/exon structure predictions. First step was to merge and manually curate the merged gene model, creating a union of genes in Phureja scaffold. We next compiled available RNA-Seq datasets (cca. 1.5 billion reads) for three tetraploid potato genotypes (cultivar Désirée, cultivar Rywal, and breeding clone PW363) with diverse breeding pedigrees. Short-read transcriptomes were assembled using CLC, Trinity, Velvet, and rnaSPAdes de novo assemblers using different settings to test for optimal outcome. In addition, for cultivar Rywal, PacBio Iso-Seq full-length transcriptome sequencing was also performed. Revised EvidentialGene redundancy-reducing pipeline was employed to produce accurate and complete cultivar-specific transcriptomes from assemblers output, as well as to attain the pan-transcriptome. Due to being the most diverse dataset in terms of tissues (stem, seedlings and roots) and experimental conditions, cv. Désirée was the most complete transcriptome (95.8% BUSCO completeness). For cv. Rywal and breeding clone PW363 data were available for leaf samples only and the resulting transcriptomes were less complete than cv. Désirée (89.8% and 89.3% BUSCO completeness, respectively). Cross comparison of these cultivar-specific transcriptomes and merged DM gene model suggests that the core potato transcriptome is comprised of 16,339 genes. The pan-transcriptome contains a total of 95,779 transcripts, of which 54,614 transcripts are not present in the Phureja genome. These represent the variants of the novel genes found in the potato pan-genome. Conclusions: Our analysis shows that the available gene model of double-monoploid potato from group Phureja is, to some degree, not complete. The generated transcriptomes and pan-transcriptome represent a valuable resource for potato gene variability exploration, high-throughput -omics analyses, and future breeding programmes.

Authors: Marko Petek, Maja Zagorščak, Živa Ramšak, Sheri Sanders, Elizabeth Tseng, Mohamed Zouine, Anna Coll, Kristina Gruden

Date Published: No date defined

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Abstract (Expand)

The eminently complex regulatory network protecting the cell against oxidative stress, surfaces in several disease maps, including that of Parkinson’s disease (PD). How this molecular networking achieves its various functionalities and how processes operating at the seconds-minutes time scale cause a disease at a time scale of multiple decennia is enigmatic. By computational analysis, we here disentangle the reactive oxygen species (ROS) regulatory network into a hierarchy of subnetworks that each correspond to a different functionality. The detailed dynamic model of ROS management obtained integrates these functionalities and fits in vitro data sets from two different laboratories. The model shows effective ROS-management for a century, followed by a sudden system’s collapse due to the loss of p62 protein. PD related conditions such as lack of DJ-1 protein or increased α-synuclein accelerated the system’s collapse. Various in-silico interventions (e.g. addition of antioxidants or caffeine) slowed down the collapse of the system in silico, suggesting the model may help discover new medicinal and nutritional therapies.

Authors: Alexey Kolodkin, Raju Prasad Sharma, Anna Maria Colangelo, Andrew Ignatenko, Francesca Martorana, Danyel Jennen, Jacco J. Briede, Nathan Brady, Matteo Barberis, Thierry D.G.A. Mondeel, Michele Papa, Vikas Kumar, Bernhard Peters, Alexander Skupin, Lilia Alberghina, Rudi Balling, Hans V. Westerhoff

Date Published: No date defined

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