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599 Publications visible to you, out of a total of 599

Abstract (Expand)

Proteomic and transcriptomics signatures are powerful tools for visualizing global changes in gene expression in bacterial cells after exposure to stress, starvation or toxic compounds. Based on the global expression profile and the dissection into specific regulons, this knowledge can be used to predict the mode of action for novel antimicrobial compounds. This review summarizes our recent progress of proteomic signatures in the model bacterium for low-GC Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis in response to the antimicrobial compounds phenol, catechol, salicylic acid, 2-methylhydroquinone (2-MHQ) and 6-brom-2-vinyl-chroman-4-on (chromanon). Catechol, 2-MHQ and diamide displayed a common mode of action, as revealed by the induction of the thiol-specific oxidative stress response. In addition, multiple dioxygenases/glyoxalases, azoreductases and nitroreductases were induced by thiol-reactive compounds that are regulated by two novel thiol-specific regulators, YodB and MhqR (YkvE), both of which contribute to electrophile resistance in B. subtilis. These novel thiol-stress-responsive mechanisms are highly conserved among Gram-positive bacteria and are thought to have evolved to detoxify quinone-like electrophiles.

Authors: Haike Antelmann, , Peter Zuber

Date Published: 20th Feb 2008

Publication Type: Not specified

Abstract (Expand)

Recently, we showed that the MarR-type repressor YkvE (MhqR) regulates multiple dioxygenases/glyoxalases, oxidoreductases and the azoreductase encoding yvaB (azoR2) gene in response to thiol-specific stress conditions, such as diamide, catechol and 2-methylhydroquinone (MHQ). Here we report on the regulation of the yocJ (azoR1) gene encoding another azoreductase by the novel DUF24/MarR-type repressor, YodB after exposure to thiol-reactive compounds. DNA binding activity of YodB is directly inhibited by thiol-reactive compounds in vitro. Mass spectrometry identified YodB-Cys-S-adducts that are formed upon exposure of YodB to MHQ and catechol in vitro. This confirms that catechol and MHQ are auto-oxidized to toxic ortho- and para-benzoquinones which act like diamide as thiol-reactive electrophiles. Mutational analyses further showed that the conserved Cys6 residue of YodB is required for optimal repression in vivo and in vitro while substitution of all three Cys residues of YodB affects induction of azoR1 transcription. Finally, phenotype analyses revealed that both azoreductases, AzoR1 and AzoR2 confer resistance to catechol, MHQ, 1,4-benzoquinone and diamide. Thus, both azoreductases that are controlled by different regulatory mechanisms have common functions in quinone and azo-compound reduction to protect cells against the thiol reactivity of electrophiles.

Authors: Montira Leelakriangsak, Nguyen Thi Thu Huyen, Stefanie Töwe, Nguyen van Duy, Dörte Becher, , Haike Antelmann, Peter Zuber

Date Published: 16th Jan 2008

Publication Type: Not specified

Abstract (Expand)

Streptomyces coelicolor GlnR is a global regulator that controls genes involved in nitrogen metabolism. By genomic screening 10 new GlnR targets were identified, including enzymes for ammonium assimilation (glnII, gdhA), nitrite reduction (nirB), urea cleavage (ureA) and a number of biochemically uncharacterized proteins (SCO0255, SCO0888, SCO2195, SCO2400, SCO2404, SCO7155). For the GlnR regulon, a GlnR binding site which comprises the sequence gTnAc-n(6)-GaAAc-n(6)-GtnAC-n(6)-GAAAc-n(6) has been found. Reverse transcription analysis of S. coelicolor and the S. coelicolor glnR mutant revealed that GlnR activates or represses the expression of its target genes. Furthermore, glnR expression itself was shown to be nitrogen-dependent. Physiological studies of S. coelicolor and the S. coelicolor glnR mutant with ammonium and nitrate as the sole nitrogen source revealed that GlnR is not only involved in ammonium assimilation but also in ammonium supply. blast analysis demonstrated that GlnR-homologous proteins are present in different actinomycetes containing the glnA gene with the conserved GlnR binding site. By DNA binding studies, it was furthermore demonstrated that S. coelicolor GlnR is able to interact with these glnA upstream regions. We therefore suggest that GlnR-mediated regulation is not restricted to Streptomyces but constitutes a regulon conserved in many actinomycetes.

Authors: Yvonne Tiffert, Petra Supra, Reinhild Wurm, , Rolf Wagner,

Date Published: 7th Jan 2008

Publication Type: Not specified

Abstract (Expand)

Background Signalling pathways are complex systems in which not only simple monomeric molecules interact, but also more complex structures that include constitutive or induced protein assemblies. In particular, the hetero-and homo-dimerisation of proteins is a commonly encountered motif in signalling pathways. Several authors have suggested in recent times that dimerisation relates to a series of physical and biological outcomes used by the cell in the regulation of signal transduction. Results In this paper we investigate the role of homodimerisation in receptor-protein transducer interactions. Towards this end, mathematical modelling is used to analyse the features of such kind of interactions and to predict the behaviour of the system under different experimental conditions. A kinetic model in which the interaction between homodimers provokes a dual mechanism of activation (single and double protein transducer activation at the same time) is proposed. In addition, we analyse under which conditions the use of a power-law representation for the system is useful. Furthermore, we investigate the dynamical consequences of this dual mechanism and compare the performance of the system in different simulated experimental conditions. Conclusion The analysis of our mathematical model suggests that in receptor-protein interacting systems with dual mechanism there may be a shift between double and single activation in a way that intense double protein transducer activation could initiate and dominate the signal in the short term (getting a fast intense signal), while single protein activation could control the system in the medium and long term (when input signal is weaker and decreases slowly). Our investigation suggests that homodimerisation and oligomerisation are mechanisms used to enhance and regulate the dynamic properties of the initial steps in signalling pathways.

Authors: Julio Vera, , Walter Kolch,

Date Published: 2008

Publication Type: Not specified

Abstract (Expand)

All regulatory processes require components that sense the environmental or metabolic conditions of the cell, and sophisticated sensory proteins have been studied in great detail. During the last few years, it turned out that enzymes can control gene expression in response to the availability of their substrates. Here, we review four different mechanisms by which these enzymes interfere with regulation in bacteria. First, some enzymes have acquired a DNA-binding domain and act as direct transcription repressors by binding DNA in the absence of their substrates. A second class is represented by aconitase, which can bind iron responsive elements in the absence of iron to control the expression of genes involved in iron homoeostasis. The third class of these enzymes is sugar permeases of the phosphotransferase system that control the activity of transcription regulators by phosphorylating them in the absence of the specific substrate. Finally, a fourth class of regulatory enzymes controls the activity of transcription factors by inhibitory protein-protein interactions. We suggest that the enzymes that are active in the control of gene expression should be designated as trigger enzymes. An analysis of the occurrence of trigger enzymes suggests that the duplication and subsequent functional specialization is a major pattern in their evolution.

Authors: Fabian M Commichau,

Date Published: 11th Dec 2007

Publication Type: Not specified

Abstract (Expand)

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis is an important producer of high quality industrial enzymes and a few eukaryotic proteins. Most of these proteins are secreted into the growth medium, but successful examples of cytoplasmic protein production are also known. Therefore, one may anticipate that the high protein production potential of B. subtilis can be exploited for protein complexes and membrane proteins to facilitate their functional and structural analysis. The high quality of proteins produced with B. subtilis results from the action of cellular quality control systems that efficiently remove misfolded or incompletely synthesized proteins. Paradoxically, cellular quality control systems also represent bottlenecks for the production of various heterologous proteins at significant concentrations. CONCLUSION: While inactivation of quality control systems has the potential to improve protein production yields, this could be achieved at the expense of product quality. Mechanisms underlying degradation of secretory proteins are nowadays well understood and often controllable. It will therefore be a major challenge for future research to identify and modulate quality control systems of B. subtilis that limit the production of high quality protein complexes and membrane proteins, and to enhance those systems that facilitate assembly of these proteins.

Authors: Jessica C Zweers, Imrich Barák, Dörte Becher, Arnold Jm Driessen, , Vesa P Kontinen, Manfred J Saller, L'udmila Vavrová,

Date Published: 2nd Dec 2007

Publication Type: Not specified

Abstract (Expand)

The computational reconstruction and analysis of cellular models of microbial metabolism is one of the great success stories of systems biology. The extent and quality of metabolic network reconstructions is, however, limited by the current state of biochemical knowledge. Can experimental high-throughput data be used to improve and expand network reconstructions to include unexplored areas of metabolism? Recent advances in experimental technology and analytical methods bring this aim an important step closer to realization. Data integration will play a particularly important part in exploiting the new experimental opportunities.

Authors: , Dennis Vitkup, Michael P Barrett

Date Published: 21st Nov 2007

Publication Type: Not specified

Abstract (Expand)

SUMMARY: We present a Cytoscape plugin for the inference and visualization of networks from high-resolution mass spectrometry metabolomic data. The software also provides access to basic topological analysis. This open source, multi-platform software has been successfully used to interpret metabolomic experiments and will enable others using filtered, high mass accuracy mass spectrometric data sets to build and analyse networks. AVAILABILITY: http://compbio.dcs.gla.ac.uk/fabien/abinitio/abinitio.html

Authors: Fabien Jourdan, , Michael P Barrett, David Gilbert

Date Published: 14th Nov 2007

Publication Type: Not specified

Abstract (Expand)

This paper briefly describes the SABIO-RK database model for the storage of reaction kinetics information and the guidelines followed within the SABIO-RK project to annotate the kinetic data. Such annotations support the definition of cross links to other related databases and augment the semantics of the data stored in the database.

Authors: , Martin Golebiewski, , , Saqib Mir, Andreas Weidemann, Ulrike Wittig

Date Published: 14th Sep 2007

Publication Type: Journal

Abstract (Expand)

We investigate design principles of linear multi-stage phosphorylation cascades by using quantitative measures for signaling time, signal duration and signal amplitude. We compare alternative pathway structures by varying the number of phosphorylations and the length of the cascade. We show that a model for a weakly activated pathway does not reflect the biological context well, unless it is restricted to certain parameter combinations. Focusing therefore on a more general model, we compare alternative structures with respect to a multivariate optimization criterion. We test the hypothesis that the structure of a linear multi-stage phosphorylation cascade is the result of an optimization process aiming for a fast response, defined by the minimum of the product of signaling time and signal duration. It is then shown that certain pathway structures minimize this criterion. Several popular models of MAPK cascades form the basis of our study. These models represent different levels of approximation, which we compare and discuss with respect to the quantitative measures.

Authors: Simone Frey, , Stefan Hohmann,

Date Published: 6th Sep 2007

Publication Type: Not specified

Abstract (Expand)

Catechol and 2-methylhydroquinone (2-MHQ) cause the induction of the thiol-specific stress response and four dioxygenases/glyoxalases in Bacillus subtilis. Using transcription factor arrays, the MarR-type regulator YkvE was identified as a repressor of the dioxygenase/glyoxalase-encoding mhqE gene. Transcriptional and proteome analyses of the DeltaykvE mutant revealed the upregulation of ykcA (mhqA), ydfNOP (mhqNOP), yodED (mhqED) and yvaB (azoR2) encoding multiple dioxygenases/glyoxalases, oxidoreductases and an azoreductase. Primer extension experiments identified sigma(A)-type promoter sequences upstream of mhqA, mhqNOP, mhqED and azoR2 from which transcription is elevated after thiol stress. DNase I footprinting analysis showed that YkvE protects a primary imperfect inverted repeat with the consensus sequence of tATCTcgaAtTCgAGATaaaa in the azoR2, mhqE and mhqN promoter regions. Analysis of mhqE-promoter-bgaB fusions confirmed the significance of YkvE binding to this operator in vivo. Adjacent secondary repeats were protected by YkvE in the azoR2 and mhqN promoter regions consistent with multiple DNA-protein binding complexes. DNA-binding activity of YkvE was not directly affected by thiol-reactive compounds in vitro. Mutational analyses showed that MhqA, MhqO and AzoR2 confer resistance to 2-MHQ. Moreover, the DeltaykvE mutant displayed a 2-MHQ and catechol resistant phenotype. YkvE was renamed as MhqR controlling a 2-MHQ and catechol-resistance regulon of B. subtilis.

Authors: Stefanie Töwe, Montira Leelakriangsak, Kazuo Kobayashi, Nguyen Van Duy, , Peter Zuber, Haike Antelmann

Date Published: 27th Aug 2007

Publication Type: Not specified

Abstract (Expand)

The general stress regulon of Bacillus subtilis is controlled by the activity state of sigmaB, a transcription factor that is switched on following exposure to either physical or nutritional stress. ClpP is the proteolytic component of an ATP-dependent protease that is essential for the proper regulation of multiple adaptive responses in B. subtilis. Among the proteins whose abundance increases in ClpP- B. subtilis are several known to depend on sigmaB for their expression. In the current work we examine the relationship of ClpP to the activity of sigmaB. The data reveal that the loss of ClpP in otherwise wild-type B. subtilis results in a small increase in sigmaB activity during growth and a marked enhancement of sigmaB activity following its induction by either physical or nutritional stress. It appears to be the persistence of sigmaB's activity rather than its induction that is principally affected by the loss of ClpP. sigmaB-dependent reporter gene activity rose in parallel in ClpP+ and ClpP- B. subtilis strains but failed to display its normal transience in the ClpP- strain. The putative ClpP targets are likely to be stress generated and novel. Enhanced sigmaB activity in ClpP- B. subtilis was triggered by physical stress but not by the induced synthesis of the physical stress pathway's positive regulator (RsbT). In addition, Western blot analyses failed to detect differences in the levels of the principal known sigmaB regulators in ClpP+ and ClpP- B. subtilis strains. The data suggest a model in which ClpP facilitates the turnover of stress-generated factors, which persist in ClpP's absence to stimulate ongoing sigmaB activity.

Authors: Adam Reeves, Ulf Gerth, , W G Haldenwang

Date Published: 22nd Jun 2007

Publication Type: Not specified

Abstract (Expand)

Photoperiodism allows organisms to measure daylength, or external photoperiod, and to anticipate coming seasons. Daylength measurement requires the integration of light signal and temporal information by the circadian clock. In the long-day plant Arabidopsis thaliana, CONSTANS (CO) plays a crucial role in integrating the circadian rhythm and environmental light signals into the photoperiodic flowering pathway. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanism by which the circadian clock modulates the cyclic expression profile of CO is poorly understood. Here, we first showed that the clock-associated genes PSEUDO-RESPONSE REGULATOR (PRR) PRR9, PRR7 and PRR5 are involved in activation of CO expression during the daytime. Then, extensive genetic studies using CIRCADIAN CLOCK-ASSOCIATED1 (CCA1)/LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (LHY) double mutants (cca1/lhy) and prr7/prr5 were conducted. The results suggested that PRR genes act coordinately in a manner parallel with and antagonistic to CCA/LHY, upstream of the canonical CO-FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) photoperiodic flowering pathway. Finally, we provided evidence to propose a model, in which CCA1/LHY repress CO through GIGANTEA (GI), while PRR9, PRR7 and PRR5 activate CO predominantly by repressing CYCLING DOF FACTOR1 (CDF1) encoding a DNA-binding transcriptional repressor.

Authors: N. Nakamichi, M. Kita, K. Niinuma, S. Ito, T. Yamashino, T. Mizoguchi, T. Mizuno

Date Published: 17th May 2007

Publication Type: Not specified

Abstract (Expand)

The effect of osmotic stress on the intracellular diffusion of proteins in Escherichia coli was studied, using a pulsed version of fluorescence recovery after photo-bleaching, pulsed-FRAP. This method employs sequences of laser pulses which only partly bleach the fluorophores in a cell. Because the cell size and geometry are taken into account, pulsed-FRAP enables to measure diffusion in very small cells of different shapes. We found that upon an osmotic upshock from 0.15 to 0.6 Osm, imposed by NaCl or sorbitol, the apparent intracellular diffusion (D) of mobile green fluorescent protein (GFP) decreased from 3.2 to 0.4 microm(2) s(-1), whereas the membrane permeable glycerol had no effect. Exposing E. coli cells to higher osmolalities (> 0.6 Osm) led to compartmentalization of the GFP into discrete pools, from where the GFP could not escape. Although free diffusion through the cell was hindered, the mobility of GFP in these pools was still relatively high (D approximately 0.4 microm(2) s(-1)). The presence of osmoprotectants restored the effect of osmotic stress on the protein mobility and apparent compartmentalization. Also, lowering the osmolality from 0.6 Osm back to 0.15 Osm restored the mobility of GFP. The implications of these findings in terms of heterogeneities and diffusive barriers inside the cell are discussed.

Authors: Geert van den Bogaart, Nicolaas Hermans, Victor Krasnikov,

Date Published: 28th Apr 2007

Publication Type: Not specified

Abstract (Expand)

Bistable systems play an important role in the functioning of living cells. Depending on the strength of the necessary positive feedback one can distinguish between (irreversible) "one-way switch" or (reversible) "toggle-switch" type behavior. Besides the well- established steady-state properties, some important characteristics of bistable systems arise from an analysis of their dynamics. We demonstrate that a supercritical stimulus amplitude is not sufficient to move the system from the lower (off-state) to the higher branch (on-state) for either a step or a pulse input. A switching surface is identified for the system as a function of the initial condition, input pulse amplitude and duration (a supercritical signal). We introduce the concept of bounded autonomy for single level systems with a pulse input. Towards this end, we investigate and characterize the role of the duration of the stimulus. Furthermore we show, that a minimal signal power is also necessary to change the steady state of the bistable system. This limiting signal power is independent of the applied stimulus and is determined only by systems parameters. These results are relevant for the design of experiments, where it is often difficult to create a defined pattern for the stimulus. Furthermore, intracellular processes, like receptor internalization, do manipulate the level of stimulus such that level and duration of the stimulus is conducive to characteristic behavior.

Authors: , Sree N Sreenath, Radina P Soebiyanto, Jayant Avva, Kwang-Hyun Cho,

Date Published: 17th Jan 2007

Publication Type: Not specified

Abstract

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Authors: W. Lu, B.-J. Zheng, K. Xu, W. Schwarz, L. Du, C. K. L. Wong, J. Chen, S. Duan, V. Deubel, B. Sun

Date Published: 15th Aug 2006

Publication Type: Journal

Abstract

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Authors: Jochen Schaub, Carola Schiesling, , Michael Dauner

Date Published: 2006

Publication Type: Not specified

Abstract

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Author: Paul S. Masters

Date Published: 2006

Publication Type: InCollection

Abstract (Expand)

High-quality quantitative data generated under standardized conditions is critical for understanding dynamic cellular processes. We report strategies for error reduction, and algorithms for automated data processing and for establishing the widely used techniques of immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting as highly precise methods for the quantification of protein levels and modifications. To determine the stoichiometry of cellular components and to ensure comparability of experiments, relative signals are converted to absolute values. A major source for errors in blotting techniques are inhomogeneities of the gel and the transfer procedure leading to correlated errors. These correlations are prevented by randomized gel loading, which significantly reduces standard deviations. Further error reduction is achieved by using housekeeping proteins as normalizers or by adding purified proteins in immunoprecipitations as calibrators in combination with criteria-based normalization. Additionally, we developed a computational tool for automated normalization, validation and integration of data derived from multiple immunoblots. In this way, large sets of quantitative data for dynamic pathway modeling can be generated, enabling the identification of systems properties and the prediction of targets for efficient intervention.

Authors: M. Schilling, T. Maiwald, S. Bohl, M. Kollmann, C. Kreutz, J. Timmer, U. Klingmuller

Date Published: 13th Dec 2005

Publication Type: Journal

Abstract (Expand)

After >8,000 infections and >700 deaths worldwide, the pathogenesis of the new infectious disease, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), remains poorly understood. We investigated 18 autopsies of patients who had suspected SARS; 8 cases were confirmed as SARS. We evaluated white blood cells from 22 confirmed SARS patients at various stages of the disease. T lymphocyte counts in 65 confirmed and 35 misdiagnosed SARS cases also were analyzed retrospectively. SARS viral particles and genomic sequence were detected in a large number of circulating lymphocytes, monocytes, and lymphoid tissues, as well as in the epithelial cells of the respiratory tract, the mucosa of the intestine, the epithelium of the renal distal tubules, the neurons of the brain, and macrophages in different organs. SARS virus seemed to be capable of infecting multiple cell types in several organs; immune cells and pulmonary epithelium were identified as the main sites of injury. A comprehensive theory of pathogenesis is proposed for SARS with immune and lung damage as key features.

Authors: Jiang Gu, Encong Gong, Bo Zhang, Jie Zheng, Zifen Gao, Yanfeng Zhong, Wanzhong Zou, Jun Zhan, Shenglan Wang, Zhigang Xie, Hui Zhuang, Bingquan Wu, Haohao Zhong, Hongquan Shao, Weigang Fang, Dongshia Gao, Fei Pei, Xingwang Li, Zhongpin He, Danzhen Xu, Xeying Shi, Virginia M. Anderson, Anthony S.-Y. Leong

Date Published: 1st Aug 2005

Publication Type: Journal

Abstract

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Authors: Y.-J. Tan, P.-Y. Tham, D. Z. L. Chan, C.-F. Chou, S. Shen, B. C. Fielding, T. H. P. Tan, S. G. Lim, W. Hong

Date Published: 13th Jul 2005

Publication Type: Journal

Abstract

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Authors: Yumiko Imai, Keiji Kuba, Shuan Rao, Yi Huan, Feng Guo, Bin Guan, Peng Yang, Renu Sarao, Teiji Wada, Howard Leong-Poi, Michael A. Crackower, Akiyoshi Fukamizu, Chi-Chung Hui, Lutz Hein, Stefan Uhlig, Arthur S. Slutsky, Chengyu Jiang, Josef M. Penninger

Date Published: 1st Jul 2005

Publication Type: Journal

Abstract (Expand)

A novel coronavirus, the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (SARS-CoV), was identified as the causative agent of SARS. The profile of specific antibodies to individual proteins of the virus is critical to the development of vaccine and diagnostic tools. In this study, 13 recombinant proteins associated with four structural proteins (S, E, M and N) and five putative uncharacterized proteins (3a, 3b, 6, 7a and 9b) of the SARS-CoV were prepared and used for screening and monitoring their specific IgG antibodies in SARS patient sera by protein microarray. Antibodies to proteins S, 3a, N and 9b were detected in the sera from convalescent-phase SARS patients, whereas those to proteins E, M, 3b, 6 and 7a were undetected. In the detectable specific antibodies, anti-S and anti-N were dominant and could persist in the sera of SARS patients until week 30. Among the rabbit antisera to recombinant proteins S3, N, 3a and 9b, only anti-S3 serum showed significant neutralizing activity to the SARS-CoV infection in Vero E6 cells. The results suggest (1) that anti-S and anti-N antibodies are diagnostic markers and in particular that S3 is immunogenic and therefore is a good candidate as a subunit vaccine antigen; and (2) that, from a virus structure viewpoint, the presence in some human sera of antibodies reacting with two recombinant polypeptides, 3a and 9b, supports the hypothesis that they are synthesized during the virus cycle.

Authors: Maofeng Qiu, Yuling Shi, Zhaobiao Guo, Zeliang Chen, Rongqiao He, Runsheng Chen, Dongsheng Zhou, Erhei Dai, Xiaoyi Wang, Bingyin Si, Yajun Song, Jingxiang Li, Ling Yang, Jin Wang, Hongxia Wang, Xin Pang, Junhui Zhai, Zongmin Du, Ying Liu, Yong Zhang, Linhai Li, Jian Wang, Bing Sun, Ruifu Yang

Date Published: 1st May 2005

Publication Type: Journal

Abstract

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Authors: Y.-J. Tan, E. Teng, S. Shen, T. H. P. Tan, P.-Y. Goh, B. C. Fielding, E.-E. Ooi, H.-C. Tan, S. G. Lim, W. Hong

Date Published: 11th Jun 2004

Publication Type: Journal

Abstract

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Authors: Volker Thiel, Konstantin A. Ivanov, Ákos Putics, Tobias Hertzig, Barbara Schelle, Sonja Bayer, Benedikt Weißbrich, Eric J. Snijder, Holger Rabenau, Hans Wilhelm Doerr, Alexander E. Gorbalenya, John Ziebuhr

Date Published: 1st Sep 2003

Publication Type: Journal

Abstract (Expand)

We used parameter scanning to emulate changes to the limiting rate for steps in a fitted model of glucose-derepressed yeast glycolysis. Three flux-control regimes were observed, two of which were under the dominant control of hexose transport, in accordance with various experimental studies and other model predictions. A third control regime in which phosphofructokinase exerted dominant glycolytic flux control was also found, but it appeared to be physiologically unreachable by this model, and all realistically obtainable flux control regimes featured hexose transport as a step involving high flux control.

Authors: L. Pritchard, D. B. Kell

Date Published: 16th Aug 2002

Publication Type: Journal

Abstract (Expand)

Microarray analysis has become a widely used tool for the generation of gene expression data on a genomic scale. Although many significant results have been derived from microarray studies, one limitation has been the lack of standards for presenting and exchanging such data. Here we present a proposal, the Minimum Information About a Microarray Experiment (MIAME), that describes the minimum information required to ensure that microarray data can be easily interpreted and that results derived from its analysis can be independently verified. The ultimate goal of this work is to establish a standard for recording and reporting microarray-based gene expression data, which will in turn facilitate the establishment of databases and public repositories and enable the development of data analysis tools. With respect to MIAME, we concentrate on defining the content and structure of the necessary information rather than the technical format for capturing it.

Authors: A. Brazma, P. Hingamp, J. Quackenbush, G. Sherlock, P. Spellman, C. Stoeckert, J. Aach, W. Ansorge, C. A. Ball, H. C. Causton, T. Gaasterland, P. Glenisson, F. C. Holstege, I. F. Kim, V. Markowitz, J. C. Matese, H. Parkinson, A. Robinson, U. Sarkans, S. Schulze-Kremer, J. Stewart, R. Taylor, J. Vilo, M. Vingron

Date Published: 1st Dec 2001

Publication Type: Not specified

Abstract

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Authors: Visweswaran Navaratnam, Sharif Mahsufi Mansor, Nam-Weng Sit, James Grace, Qigui Li, Piero Olliaro

Date Published: 2000

Publication Type: Journal

Abstract

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Author: Stuart G. Siddell

Date Published: 1995

Publication Type: InCollection

Abstract (Expand)

The proteins cdc2 and cyclin form a heterodimer (maturation promoting factor) that controls the major events of the cell cycle. A mathematical model for the interactions of cdc2 and cyclin is constructed. Simulation and analysis of the model show that the control system can operate in three modes: as a steady state with high maturation promoting factor activity, as a spontaneous oscillator, or as an excitable switch. We associate the steady state with metaphase arrest in unfertilized eggs, the spontaneous oscillations with rapid division cycles in early embryos, and the excitable switch with growth-controlled division cycles typical of nonembryonic cells.

Author: J. J. Tyson

Date Published: 15th Aug 1991

Publication Type: Not specified

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