Publications

96 Publications visible to you, out of a total of 96

Abstract (Expand)

Data standards support the reliable exchange of information, the interoperability of tools, and the reproducibility of scientific results. In systems biology standards are agreed ways of structuring, describing, and associating models and data, as well as their respective parts, graphical visualization, and information about applied experimental or computational methods. Such standards also assist with describing how constituent parts interact together, or are linked, and how they are embedded in their environmental and experimental context. Here the focus will be on standards for formatting models and their content, and on metadata checklists and ontologies that support modeling.

Author: Martin Golebiewski

Date Published: 2019

Publication Type: InBook

Abstract (Expand)

A 29 nucleotide deletion in open reading frame 8 (ORF8) is the most obvious genetic change in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) during its emergence in humans. In spite of intense study, it remains unclear whether the deletion actually reflects adaptation to humans. Here we engineered full, partially deleted (−29 nt), and fully deleted ORF8 into a SARS-CoV infectious cDNA clone, strain Frankfurt-1. Replication of the resulting viruses was compared in primate cell cultures as well as Rhinolophus bat cells made permissive for SARS-CoV replication by lentiviral transduction of the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor. Cells from cotton rat, goat, and sheep provided control scenarios that represent host systems in which SARS-CoV is neither endemic nor epidemic. Independent of the cell system, the truncation of ORF8 (29 nt deletion) decreased replication up to 23-fold. The effect was independent of the type I interferon response. The 29 nt deletion in SARS-CoV is a deleterious mutation acquired along the initial human-to-human transmission chain. The resulting loss of fitness may be due to a founder effect, which has rarely been documented in processes of viral emergence. These results have important implications for the retrospective assessment of the threat posed by SARS.

Authors: Doreen Muth, Victor Max Corman, Hanna Roth, Tabea Binger, Ronald Dijkman, Lina Theresa Gottula, Florian Gloza-Rausch, Andrea Balboni, Mara Battilani, Danijela Rihtarič, Ivan Toplak, Ramón Seage Ameneiros, Alexander Pfeifer, Volker Thiel, Jan Felix Drexler, Marcel Alexander Müller, Christian Drosten

Date Published: 1st Dec 2018

Publication Type: Journal

Abstract (Expand)

Human coronaviruses (HCoVs) enter cells via two distinct pathways: the endosomal pathway using cathepsins to activate spike protein and the cell-surface or early endosome pathway using extracellular proteases such as transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2). We previously reported that clinical isolates of HCoV-229E preferred cell-surface TMPRSS2 to endosomal cathepsin for cell entry, and that they acquired the ability to use cathepsin L by repeated passage in cultured cells and were then able to enter cells via the endosomal pathway. Here, we show that clinical isolates of HCoV-OC43 and -HKU1 preferred the cell-surface TMRRSS2 to endosomal cathepsins for cell entry, similar to HCoV-229E. In addition, the cell-culture-adapted HCoV-OC43 lost the ability to infect and replicate in air-liquid interface cultures of human bronchial tracheal epithelial cells. These results suggest that circulating HCoVs in the field generally use cell-surface TMPRSS2 for cell entry, not endosomal cathepsins, in human airway epithelial cells.

Authors: Kazuya Shirato, Miyuki Kawase, Shutoku Matsuyama

Date Published: 1st Apr 2018

Publication Type: Journal

Abstract (Expand)

Respiratory viruses, especially influenza A viruses and coronaviruses such as MERS-CoV, represent continuing global threats to human health. Despite significant advances, much needs to be learned. Recent studies in virology and immunology have improved our understanding of the role of the immune system in protection and in the pathogenesis of these infections and of co-evolution of viruses and their hosts. These findings, together with sophisticated molecular structure analyses, omics tools and computer-based models, have helped delineate the interaction between respiratory viruses and the host immune system, which will facilitate the development of novel treatment strategies and vaccines with enhanced efficacy.

Authors: Jian Zheng, Stanley Perlman

Date Published: 1st Feb 2018

Publication Type: Journal

Abstract (Expand)

Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) infection in infants, elderly people, and immunocompromised patients can cause severe disease, thus calling for the development of effective and safe therapeutics to treat it. Here we reported the design, synthesis and characterization of two peptide-based membrane fusion inhibitors targeting HCoV-229E spike protein heptad repeat 1 (HR1) and heptad repeat 2 (HR2) domains, 229E-HR1P and 229E-HR2P, respectively. We found that 229E-HR1P and 229E-HR2P could interact to form a stable six-helix bundle and inhibit HCoV-229E spike protein-mediated cell-cell fusion with IC50 of 5.7 and 0.3 µM, respectively. 229E-HR2P effectively inhibited pseudotyped and live HCoV-229E infection with IC50 of 0.5 and 1.7 µM, respectively. In a mouse model, 229E-HR2P administered intranasally could widely distribute in the upper and lower respiratory tracts and maintain its fusion-inhibitory activity. Therefore, 229E-HR2P is a promising candidate for further development as an antiviral agent for the treatment and prevention of HCoV-229E infection.

Authors: Shuai Xia, Wei Xu, Qian Wang, Cong Wang, Chen Hua, Weihua Li, Lu Lu, Shibo Jiang

Date Published: 1st Feb 2018

Publication Type: Journal

Abstract (Expand)

Coronaviruses are pathogens with a serious impact on human and animal health. They mostly cause enteric or respiratory disease, which can be severe and life threatening, e.g., in the case of the zoonotic coronaviruses causing severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) in humans. Despite the economic and societal impact of such coronavirus infections, and the likelihood of future outbreaks of additional pathogenic coronaviruses, our options to prevent or treat coronavirus infections remain very limited. This highlights the importance of advancing our knowledge on the replication of these viruses and their interactions with the host. Compared to other +RNA viruses, coronaviruses have an exceptionally large genome and employ a complex genome expression strategy. Next to a role in basic virus replication or virus assembly, many of the coronavirus proteins expressed in the infected cell contribute to the coronavirus-host interplay. For example, by interacting with the host cell to create an optimal environment for coronavirus replication, by altering host gene expression or by counteracting the host’s antiviral defenses. These coronavirus–host interactions are key to viral pathogenesis and will ultimately determine the outcome of infection. Due to the complexity of the coronavirus proteome and replication cycle, our knowledge of host factors involved in coronavirus replication is still in an early stage compared to what is known for some other +RNA viruses. This review summarizes our current understanding of coronavirus–host interactions at the level of the infected cell, with special attention for the assembly and function of the viral RNA-synthesising machinery and the evasion of cellular innate immune responses.

Authors: Adriaan H. de Wilde, Eric J. Snijder, Marjolein Kikkert, Martijn J. van Hemert

Date Published: 2018

Publication Type: InCollection

Abstract (Expand)

Motivation: Modeling of signaling pathways is an important step towards the understanding and the treatment of diseases such as cancers, HIV or auto-immune diseases. MaBoSS is a software that allows to simulate populations of cells and to model stochastically the intracellular mechanisms that are deregulated in diseases. MaBoSS provides an output of a Boolean model in the form of time-dependent probabilities, for all biological entities (genes, proteins, phenotypes, etc.) of the model. Results: We present a new version of MaBoSS (2.0), including an updated version of the core software and an environment. With this environment, the needs for modeling signaling pathways are facilitated, including model construction, visualization, simulations of mutations, drug treatments and sensitivity analyses. It offers a framework for automated production of theoretical predictions. Availability and Implementation: MaBoSS software can be found at https://maboss.curie.fr , including tutorials on existing models and examples of models. Contact: gautier.stoll@upmc.fr or laurence.calzone@curie.fr. Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

Authors: G. Stoll, B. Caron, E. Viara, A. Dugourd, A. Zinovyev, A. Naldi, G. Kroemer, E. Barillot, L. Calzone

Date Published: 15th Jul 2017

Publication Type: Journal

Abstract (Expand)

Human coronaviruses (hCoVs) can be divided into low pathogenic and highly pathogenic coronaviruses. The low pathogenic CoVs infect the upper respiratory tract and cause mild, cold-like respiratory illness. In contrast, highly pathogenic hCoVs such as severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome CoV (MERS-CoV) predominantly infect lower airways and cause fatal pneumonia. Severe pneumonia caused by pathogenic hCoVs is often associated with rapid virus replication, massive inflammatory cell infiltration and elevated pro-inflammatory cytokine/chemokine responses resulting in acute lung injury (ALI), and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Recent studies in experimentally infected animal strongly suggest a crucial role for virus-induced immunopathological events in causing fatal pneumonia after hCoV infections. Here we review the current understanding of how a dysregulated immune response may cause lung immunopathology leading to deleterious clinical manifestations after pathogenic hCoV infections.

Authors: Rudragouda Channappanavar, Stanley Perlman

Date Published: 1st Jul 2017

Publication Type: Journal

Abstract (Expand)

Standards are essential to the advancement of science and technology. In systems and synthetic biology, numerous standards and associated tools have been developed over the last 16 years. This special issue of the Journal of Integrative Bioinformatics aims to support the exchange, distribution and archiving of these standards, as well as to provide centralised and easily citable access to them.

Authors: F. Schreiber, G. D. Bader, P. Gleeson, M. Golebiewski, M. Hucka, N. Le Novere, C. Myers, D. Nickerson, B. Sommer, D. Walthemath

Date Published: 12th Feb 2017

Publication Type: Not specified

Abstract (Expand)

The FAIRDOMHub is a repository for publishing FAIR (Findable, Accessible, Interoperable and Reusable) Data, Operating procedures and Models (https://fairdomhub.org/) for the Systems Biology community. It is a web-accessible repository for storing and sharing systems biology research assets. It enables researchers to organize, share and publish data, models and protocols, interlink them in the context of the systems biology investigations that produced them, and to interrogate them via API interfaces. By using the FAIRDOMHub, researchers can achieve more effective exchange with geographically distributed collaborators during projects, ensure results are sustained and preserved and generate reproducible publications that adhere to the FAIR guiding principles of data stewardship.

Authors: K. Wolstencroft, O. Krebs, J. L. Snoep, N. J. Stanford, F. Bacall, M. Golebiewski, R. Kuzyakiv, Q. Nguyen, S. Owen, S. Soiland-Reyes, J. Straszewski, D. D. van Niekerk, A. R. Williams, L. Malmstrom, B. Rinn, W. Muller, C. Goble

Date Published: 4th Jan 2017

Publication Type: Journal

Abstract (Expand)

The emergence of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in 2012 marked the second introduction of a highly pathogenic coronavirus into the human population in the twenty-first century. The continuing introductions of MERS-CoV from dromedary camels, the subsequent travel-related viral spread, the unprecedented nosocomial outbreaks and the high case-fatality rates highlight the need for prophylactic and therapeutic measures. Scientific advancements since the 2002–2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) pandemic allowed for rapid progress in our understanding of the epidemiology and pathogenesis of MERS-CoV and the development of therapeutics. In this Review, we detail our present understanding of the transmission and pathogenesis of SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, and discuss the current state of development of measures to combat emerging coronaviruses.

Authors: Emmie de Wit, Neeltje van Doremalen, Darryl Falzarano, Vincent J. Munster

Date Published: 1st Aug 2016

Publication Type: Journal

Abstract (Expand)

The architecture of a virus particle allows timely release of the viral genome in a host cell during entry. This critical step is known as viral uncoating. It is regulated by cues from receptors, enzymes and chemicals, and facilitated by factors that do not contact the virion directly. This review covers a wide range of cellular processes that enhance viral uncoating. The underlying mechanisms provide deep insights into cell biological and immunological processes of virus–host interactions and infections.

Authors: Yohei Yamauchi, Urs F. Greber

Date Published: 1st Jun 2016

Publication Type: Journal

Abstract (Expand)

Coronaviruses have been closely related with mankind for thousands of years. Communityacquired human coronaviruses have long been recognized to cause common cold. However, zoonotic coronaviruses are now becoming more a global concern with the discovery of highly pathogenic severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronaviruses causing severe respiratory diseases. Infections by these emerging human coronaviruses are characterized by less robust interferon production. Treatment of patients with recombinant interferon regimen promises beneficial outcomes, suggesting that compromised interferon expression might contribute at least partially to the severity of disease. The mechanisms by which coronaviruses evade host innate antiviral response are under intense investigations. This review focuses on the fierce arms race between host innate antiviral immunity and emerging human coronaviruses. Particularly, the host pathogen recognition receptors and the signal transduction pathways to mount an effective antiviral response against SARS and MERS coronavirus infection are discussed. On the other hand, the counter-measures evolved by SARS and MERS coronaviruses to circumvent host defense are also dissected. With a better understanding of the dynamic interaction between host and coronaviruses, it is hoped that insights on the pathogenesis of newly-identified highly pathogenic human coronaviruses and new strategies in antiviral development can be derived.

Authors: Lok-Yin Roy Wong, Pak-Yin Lui, Dong-Yan Jin

Date Published: 1st Feb 2016

Publication Type: Journal

Abstract (Expand)

Highly pathogenic human respiratory coronaviruses cause acute lethal disease characterized by exuberant inflammatory responses and lung damage. However, the factors leading to lung pathology are not well understood. Using mice infected with SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome)-CoV, we show that robust virus replication accompanied by delayed type I interferon (IFN-I) signaling orchestrates inflammatory responses and lung immunopathology with diminished survival. IFN-I remains detectable until after virus titers peak, but early IFN-I administration ameliorates immunopathology. This delayed IFN-I signaling promotes the accumulation of pathogenic inflammatory monocytemacrophages (IMMs), resulting in elevated lung cytokine/chemokine levels, vascular leakage, and impaired virus-specific T cell responses. Genetic ablation of the IFN-ab receptor (IFNAR) or IMM depletion protects mice from lethal infection, without affecting viral load. These results demonstrate that IFN-I and IMM promote lethal SARS-CoV infection and identify IFN-I and IMMs as potential therapeutic targets in patients infected with pathogenic coronavirus and perhaps other respiratory viruses.

Authors: Rudragouda Channappanavar, Anthony R. Fehr, Rahul Vijay, Matthias Mack, Jincun Zhao, David K. Meyerholz, Stanley Perlman

Date Published: 1st Feb 2016

Publication Type: Journal

Abstract

Abstract. Several lineage B betacoronaviruses termed severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)–like CoVs (SL-CoVs) were identified from Rhinolophus bats in Chin

Authors: Zhiqiang Wu, Li Yang, Xianwen Ren, Junpeng Zhang, Fan Yang, Shuyi Zhang, Qi Jin

Date Published: 21st Jan 2016

Publication Type: Journal

Abstract (Expand)

Despite the identification of horseshoe bats as the reservoir of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-related coronaviruses (SARSr-CoVs), the origin of SARS-CoV ORF8, which contains the 29-nucleotide signature deletion among human strains, remains obscure. Although two SARS-related Rhinolophus sinicus bat CoVs (SARSr-Rs-BatCoVs) previously detected in Chinese horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus sinicus) in Yunnan, RsSHC014 and Rs3367, possessed 95% genome identities to human and civet SARSr-CoVs, their ORF8 protein exhibited only 32.2 to 33% amino acid identities to that of human/civet SARSr-CoVs. To elucidate the origin of SARS-CoV ORF8, we sampled 348 bats of various species in Yunnan, among which diverse alphacoronaviruses and betacoronaviruses, including potentially novel CoVs, were identified, with some showing potential interspecies transmission. The genomes of two betacoronaviruses, SARSr-Rf-BatCoV YNLF_31C and YNLF_34C, from greater horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum), possessed 93% nucleotide identities to human/civet SARSr-CoV genomes. Although these two betacoronaviruses displayed lower similarities than SARSr-Rs-BatCoV RsSHC014 and Rs3367 in S protein to civet SARSr-CoVs, their ORF8 proteins demonstrated exceptionally high (80.4 to 81.3%) amino acid identities to that of human/civet SARSr-CoVs, compared to SARSr-BatCoVs from other horseshoe bats (23.2 to 37.3%). Potential recombination events were identified around ORF8 between SARSr-Rf-BatCoVs and SARSr-Rs-BatCoVs, leading to the generation of civet SARSr-CoVs. The expression of ORF8 subgenomic mRNA suggested that the ORF8 protein may be functional in SARSr-Rf-BatCoVs. The high Ka/Ks ratio among human SARS-CoVs compared to that among SARSr-BatCoVs supported that ORF8 is under strong positive selection during animal-to-human transmission. Molecular clock analysis using ORF1ab showed that SARSr-Rf-BatCoV YNLF_31C and YNLF_34C diverged from civet/human SARSr-CoVs in approximately 1990. SARS-CoV ORF8 originated from SARSr-CoVs of greater horseshoe bats through recombination, which may be important for animal-to-human transmission., IMPORTANCE Although horseshoe bats are the primary reservoir of SARS-related coronaviruses (SARSr-CoVs), it is still unclear how these bat viruses have evolved to cross the species barrier to infect civets and humans. Most human SARS-CoV epidemic strains contain a signature 29-nucleotide deletion in ORF8, compared to civet SARSr-CoVs, suggesting that ORF8 may be important for interspecies transmission. However, the origin of SARS-CoV ORF8 remains obscure. In particular, SARSr-Rs-BatCoVs from Chinese horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus sinicus) exhibited \textless40% amino acid identities to human/civet SARS-CoV in the ORF8 protein. We detected diverse alphacoronaviruses and betacoronaviruses among various bat species in Yunnan, China, including two SARSr-Rf-BatCoVs from greater horseshoe bats that possessed ORF8 proteins with exceptionally high amino acid identities to that of human/civet SARSr-CoVs. We demonstrated recombination events around ORF8 between SARSr-Rf-BatCoVs and SARSr-Rs-BatCoVs, leading to the generation of civet SARSr-CoVs. Our findings offer insight into the evolutionary origin of SARS-CoV ORF8 protein, which was likely acquired from SARSr-CoVs of greater horseshoe bats through recombination.

Authors: Susanna K. P. Lau, Yun Feng, Honglin Chen, Hayes K. H. Luk, Wei-Hong Yang, Kenneth S. M. Li, Yu-Zhen Zhang, Yi Huang, Zhi-Zhong Song, Wang-Ngai Chow, Rachel Y. Y. Fan, Syed Shakeel Ahmed, Hazel C. Yeung, Carol S. F. Lam, Jian-Piao Cai, Samson S. Y. Wong, Jasper F. W. Chan, Kwok-Yung Yuen, Hai-Lin Zhang, Patrick C. Y. Woo

Date Published: 22nd Sep 2015

Publication Type: Journal

Abstract (Expand)

Influenza viruses present major challenges to public health, evident by the 2009 influenza pandemic. Highly pathogenic influenza virus infections generally coincide with early, high levels of inflammatory cytokines that some studies have suggested may be regulated in a strain-dependent manner. However, a comprehensive characterization of the complex dynamics of the inflammatory response induced by virulent influenza strains is lacking. Here, we applied gene co-expression and nonlinear regression analysis to time-course, microarray data developed from influenza-infected mouse lung to create mathematical models of the host inflammatory response. We found that the dynamics of inflammation-associated gene expression are regulated by an ultrasensitive-like mechanism in which low levels of virus induce minimal gene expression but expression is strongly induced once a threshold virus titer is exceeded. Cytokine assays confirmed that the production of several key inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin 6 and monocyte chemotactic protein 1, exhibit ultrasensitive behavior. A systematic exploration of the pathways regulating the inflammatoryassociated gene response suggests that the molecular origins of this ultrasensitive response mechanism lie within the branch of the Toll-like receptor pathway that regulates STAT1 phosphorylation. This study provides the first evidence of an ultrasensitive mechanism regulating influenza virus-induced inflammation in whole lungs and provides insight into how different virus strains can induce distinct temporal inflammation response profiles. The approach developed here should facilitate the construction of gene regulatory models of other infectious diseases.

Authors: Jason E. Shoemaker, Satoshi Fukuyama, Amie J. Eisfeld, Dongming Zhao, Eiryo Kawakami, Saori Sakabe, Tadashi Maemura, Takeo Gorai, Hiroaki Katsura, Yukiko Muramoto, Shinji Watanabe, Tokiko Watanabe, Ken Fuji, Yukiko Matsuoka, Hiroaki Kitano, Yoshihiro Kawaoka

Date Published: 5th Jun 2015

Publication Type: Journal

Abstract (Expand)

The envelopes of coronaviruses (CoVs) contain primarily three proteins; the two major glycoproteins spike (S) and membrane (M), and envelope (E), a non-glycosylated protein. Unlike other enveloped viruses, CoVs bud and assemble at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC). For efficient virion assembly, these proteins must be targeted to the budding site and to interact with each other or the ribonucleoprotein. Thus, the efficient incorporation of viral envelope proteins into CoV virions depends on protein trafficking and protein–protein interactions near the ERGIC. The goal of this review is to summarize recent findings on the mechanism of incorporation of the M and S glycoproteins into the CoV virion, focusing on protein trafficking and protein–protein interactions.

Authors: Makoto Ujike, Fumihiro Taguchi

Date Published: 1st Apr 2015

Publication Type: Journal

Abstract (Expand)

An essential function of innate immunity is to distinguish self from non-self and receptors have evolved to specifically recognize viral components and initiate the expression of antiviral proteins to restrict viral replication. Coronaviruses are RNA viruses that replicate in the host cytoplasm and evade innate immune sensing in most cell types, either passively by hiding their viral signatures and limiting exposure to sensors or actively, by encoding viral antagonists to counteract the effects of interferons. Since many cytoplasmic viruses exploit similar mechanisms of innate immune evasion, mechanistic insight into the direct interplay between viral RNA, viral RNA-processing enzymes, cellular sensors and antiviral proteins will be highly relevant to develop novel antiviral targets and to restrict important animal and human infections.

Authors: Eveline Kindler, Volker Thiel

Date Published: 1st Aug 2014

Publication Type: Journal

Abstract (Expand)

UNLABELLED: Mathematical modeling is used as a Systems Biology tool to answer biological questions, and more precisely, to validate a network that describes biological observations and predict the effect of perturbations. This article presents an algorithm for modeling biological networks in a discrete framework with continuous time. BACKGROUND: There exist two major types of mathematical modeling approaches: (1) quantitative modeling, representing various chemical species concentrations by real numbers, mainly based on differential equations and chemical kinetics formalism; (2) and qualitative modeling, representing chemical species concentrations or activities by a finite set of discrete values. Both approaches answer particular (and often different) biological questions. Qualitative modeling approach permits a simple and less detailed description of the biological systems, efficiently describes stable state identification but remains inconvenient in describing the transient kinetics leading to these states. In this context, time is represented by discrete steps. Quantitative modeling, on the other hand, can describe more accurately the dynamical behavior of biological processes as it follows the evolution of concentration or activities of chemical species as a function of time, but requires an important amount of information on the parameters difficult to find in the literature. RESULTS: Here, we propose a modeling framework based on a qualitative approach that is intrinsically continuous in time. The algorithm presented in this article fills the gap between qualitative and quantitative modeling. It is based on continuous time Markov process applied on a Boolean state space. In order to describe the temporal evolution of the biological process we wish to model, we explicitly specify the transition rates for each node. For that purpose, we built a language that can be seen as a generalization of Boolean equations. Mathematically, this approach can be translated in a set of ordinary differential equations on probability distributions. We developed a C++ software, MaBoSS, that is able to simulate such a system by applying Kinetic Monte-Carlo (or Gillespie algorithm) on the Boolean state space. This software, parallelized and optimized, computes the temporal evolution of probability distributions and estimates stationary distributions. CONCLUSIONS: Applications of the Boolean Kinetic Monte-Carlo are demonstrated for three qualitative models: a toy model, a published model of p53/Mdm2 interaction and a published model of the mammalian cell cycle. Our approach allows to describe kinetic phenomena which were difficult to handle in the original models. In particular, transient effects are represented by time dependent probability distributions, interpretable in terms of cell populations.

Authors: G. Stoll, E. Viara, E. Barillot, L. Calzone

Date Published: 29th Aug 2012

Publication Type: Journal

Abstract (Expand)

Background: Annually, influenza A viruses circulate the world causing wide-spread sickness, economic loss, and death. One way to better defend against influenza virus-induced disease may be to develop novel host-based therapies, targeted at mitigating viral pathogenesis through the management of virus-dysregulated host functions. However, mechanisms that govern aberrant host responses to influenza virus infection remain incompletely understood. We previously showed that the pandemic H1N1 virus influenza A/California/04/2009 (H1N1; CA04) has enhanced pathogenicity in the lungs of cynomolgus macaques relative to a seasonal influenza virus isolate (A/Kawasaki/UTK-4/2009 (H1N1; KUTK4)). Results: Here, we used microarrays to identify host gene sequences that were highly differentially expressed (DE) in CA04-infected macaque lungs, and we employed a novel strategy – combining functional and pathway enrichment analyses, transcription factor binding site enrichment analysis and protein-protein interaction data – to create a CA04 differentially regulated host response network. This network describes enhanced viral RNA sensing, immune cell signaling and cell cycle arrest in CA04-infected lungs, and highlights a novel, putative role for the MYC-associated zinc finger (MAZ) transcription factor in regulating these processes. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the enhanced pathology is the result of a prolonged immune response, despite successful virus clearance. Most interesting, we identify a mechanism which normally suppresses immune cell signaling and inflammation is ineffective in the pH1N1 virus infection; a dyregulatory event also associated with arthritis. This dysregulation offers several opportunities for developing strain-independent, immunomodulatory therapies to protect against future pandemics.

Authors: Jason E Shoemaker, Satoshi Fukuyama, Amie J Eisfeld, Yukiko Muramoto, Shinji Watanabe, Tokiko Watanabe, Yukiko Matsuoka, Hiroaki Kitano, Yoshihiro Kawaoka

Date Published: 2012

Publication Type: Journal

Abstract (Expand)

The open-reading-frame 3a of SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) had been demonstrated previously to form a cation-selective channel that may become expressed in the infected cell and is then involved in virus release. Drugs that inhibit the ion channel formed by the 3a protein can be expected to inhibit virus release, and would be a source for the development of novel therapeutic agents. Here we demonstrate that emodin can inhibit the 3a ion channel of coronavirus SARS-CoV and HCoV-OC43 as well as virus release from HCoV-OC43 with a K1/2 value of about 20 ␮M. We suggest that viral ion channels, in general, may be a good target for the development of antiviral agents.

Authors: Silvia Schwarz, Kai Wang, Wenjing Yu, Bing Sun, Wolfgang Schwarz

Date Published: 1st Apr 2011

Publication Type: Journal

Abstract

Not specified

Authors: J. Chen, Y. F. Lau, E. W. Lamirande, C. D. Paddock, J. H. Bartlett, S. R. Zaki, K. Subbarao

Date Published: 11th Jan 2010

Publication Type: Journal

Abstract (Expand)

The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is reported to cause apoptosis of infected cells and several of its proteins including the 3a accessory protein, are pro-apoptotic. Since the 3a protein localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-Golgi compartment, its role in causing ER stress was investigated in transiently transfected cells. Cells expressing the 3a proteins showed ER stress based on activation of genes for the ER chaperones GRP78 and GRP94. Since ER stress can cause differential modulation of the unfolded protein response (UPR), which includes the inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE-1), activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) and PKR-like ER kinase (PERK) pathways, these were individually tested in 3a-expressing cells. Only the PERK pathway was found to be activated in 3a-expressing cells based on (1) increased phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF2a) and inhibitory effects of a dominant-negative form of eIF2a on GRP78 promoter activity, (2) increased translation of activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) mRNA, and (3) ATF4dependent activation of the C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) gene promoter. Activation of PERK affects innate immunity by suppression of type 1 interferon (IFN) signaling. The 3a protein was found to induce serine phosphorylation within the IFN alpha-receptor subunit 1 (IFNAR1) degradation motif and to increase IFNAR1 ubiquitination. Confocal microscopic analysis showed increased translocation of IFNAR1 into the lysosomal compartment and flow cytometry showed reduced levels of IFNAR1 in 3a-expressing cells. These results provide further mechanistic details of the pro-apoptotic effects of the SARS-CoV 3a protein, and suggest a potential role for it in attenuating interferon responses and innate immunity.

Authors: Rinki Minakshi, Kartika Padhan, Manjusha Rani, Nabab Khan, Faizan Ahmad, Shahid Jameel

Date Published: 17th Dec 2009

Publication Type: Journal

Abstract (Expand)

The severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (SARS-CoV) caused an outbreak of atypical pneumonia in 2003. The SARS-CoV viral genome encodes several proteins which have no homology to proteins in any other coronaviruses, and a number of these proteins have been implicated in viral cytopathies. One such protein is 3a, which is also known as X1, ORF3 and U274. 3a expression is detected in both SARS-CoV infected cultured cells and patients. Among the different functions identified, 3a is a capable of inducing apoptosis. We previously showed that caspase pathways are involved in 3a-induced apoptosis. In this study, we attempted to find out protein domains on 3a that are essential for its pro-apoptotic function. Protein sequence analysis reveals that 3a possesses three major protein signatures, the cysteine-rich, Yxx␾ and diacidic domains. We showed that 3a proteins carrying respective mutations in these protein domains exhibit reduced pro-apoptotic activities, indicating the importance of these domains on 3a’s pro-apoptotic function. It was previously reported that 3a possesses potassium ion channel activity. We further demonstrated that the blockade of 3a’s potassium channel activity abolished caspase-dependent apoptosis. This report provides the first evidence that ion channel activity of 3a is required for its proapoptotic function. As ion channel activity has been reported to regulate apoptosis in different pathologic conditions, finding ways to modulate the ion channel activity may offer a new direction toward the inhibition of apoptosis triggered by SARS-CoV.

Authors: Chak-Ming Chan, Ho Tsoi, Wing-Man Chan, Shenyu Zhai, Ching-On Wong, Xiaoqiang Yao, Wood-Yee Chan, Stephen Kwok-Wing Tsui, Ho Yin Edwin Chan

Date Published: 1st Nov 2009

Publication Type: Journal

Abstract

Not specified

Authors: Stanley Perlman, Jason Netland

Date Published: 1st Jun 2009

Publication Type: Journal

Abstract

Not specified

Authors: Yumiko Imai, Keiji Kuba, Josef M. Penninger

Date Published: 1st May 2008

Publication Type: Journal

Abstract

Not specified

Authors: W. Lu, B.-J. Zheng, K. Xu, W. Schwarz, L. Du, C. K. L. Wong, J. Chen, S. Duan, V. Deubel, B. Sun

Date Published: 15th Aug 2006

Publication Type: Journal

Abstract

Not specified

Author: Paul S. Masters

Date Published: 2006

Publication Type: InCollection

Abstract (Expand)

After >8,000 infections and >700 deaths worldwide, the pathogenesis of the new infectious disease, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), remains poorly understood. We investigated 18 autopsies of patients who had suspected SARS; 8 cases were confirmed as SARS. We evaluated white blood cells from 22 confirmed SARS patients at various stages of the disease. T lymphocyte counts in 65 confirmed and 35 misdiagnosed SARS cases also were analyzed retrospectively. SARS viral particles and genomic sequence were detected in a large number of circulating lymphocytes, monocytes, and lymphoid tissues, as well as in the epithelial cells of the respiratory tract, the mucosa of the intestine, the epithelium of the renal distal tubules, the neurons of the brain, and macrophages in different organs. SARS virus seemed to be capable of infecting multiple cell types in several organs; immune cells and pulmonary epithelium were identified as the main sites of injury. A comprehensive theory of pathogenesis is proposed for SARS with immune and lung damage as key features.

Authors: Jiang Gu, Encong Gong, Bo Zhang, Jie Zheng, Zifen Gao, Yanfeng Zhong, Wanzhong Zou, Jun Zhan, Shenglan Wang, Zhigang Xie, Hui Zhuang, Bingquan Wu, Haohao Zhong, Hongquan Shao, Weigang Fang, Dongshia Gao, Fei Pei, Xingwang Li, Zhongpin He, Danzhen Xu, Xeying Shi, Virginia M. Anderson, Anthony S.-Y. Leong

Date Published: 1st Aug 2005

Publication Type: Journal

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