About Frank Schmidt:
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Resistance Exercise Reduces Kynurenine Pathway Metabolites in Breast Cancer Patients Undergoing Radiotherapy
Purpose: Evidence from preclinical studies and trials in healthy volunteers suggests that exercise may modulate the levels of tryptophan (TRP) metabolites along the kynurenine (KYN) pathway. As KYN and … downstream KYN metabolites are known to promote cancer progression by inhibiting anti-tumor immune responses and by promoting the motility of cancer cells, we investigated if resistance exercise can also control the levels of KYN pathway metabolites in breast cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy (NCT01468766). Patients and Methods: Chemotherapy-naïve breast cancer patients (n = 96) were either randomized to an exercise/intervention group (IG) or a control group (CG). The IG participated in a 12-week supervised progressive resistance exercise program twice a week, whereas the CG received a supervised relaxation program. Serum levels of TRP and KYN as well as urine levels of kynurenic acid (KYNA) and neurotoxic quinolinic acid (QUINA) were assessed before (t0), after radiotherapy, and mid-term of the exercise intervention (t1) and after the exercise intervention (t2). Additionally, 24 healthy women (HIG) participated in the exercise program to investigate potential differences in its effects on KYN metabolites in comparison to the breast cancer patients. Results: At baseline (t0) the breast cancer patients showed a significantly elevated serum KYN/TRP ratio and urine QUINA/KYNA ratio, as well as increased urine QUINA levels in comparison to the healthy women. In response to exercise the healthy women and the breast cancer patients differed significantly in the levels of urine QUINA and the QUINA/KYNA ratio. Most importantly, serum KYN levels and the KYN/TRP ratio were significantly reduced in exercising patients (IG) compared to non-exercising patients (CG) both at t1 and t2. Conclusion: Resistance exercise may represent a potent non-pharmacological avenue to counteract an activation of the KYN pathway in breast cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy.
Date Published: 25th Sep 2019
Publication Type: Not specified
Citation: Front. Oncol. 9 : 673
Created: 1st Oct 2019 at 12:21, Last updated: 1st Oct 2019 at 12:25
The roles of the nitrate reductase NarGHJI, the nitrite reductase NirBD and the response regulator GlnR in nitrate assimilation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Mycobacterium tuberculosis can utilize various nutrients including nitrate as a source of nitrogen. Assimilation of nitrate requires the reduction of nitrate via nitrite to ammonium, which is then … incorporated into metabolic pathways. This study was undertaken to define the molecular mechanism of nitrate assimilation in M. tuberculosis. Homologues to a narGHJI-encoded nitrate reductase and a nirBD-encoded nitrite reductase have been found on the chromosome of M. tuberculosis. Previous studies have implied a role for NarGHJI in nitrate respiration rather than nitrate assimilation. Here, we show that a narG mutant of M. tuberculosis failed to grow on nitrate. A nirB mutant of M. tuberculosis failed to grow on both nitrate and nitrite. Mutant strains of Mycobacterium smegmatis mc(2)155 that are unable to grow on nitrate were isolated. The mutants were rescued by screening a cosmid library from M. tuberculosis, and a gene with homology to the response regulator gene glnR of Streptomyces coelicolor was identified. A DeltaglnR mutant of M. tuberculosis was generated, which also failed to grow on nitrate, but regained its ability to utilize nitrate when nirBD was expressed from a plasmid, suggesting a role of GlnR in regulating nirBD expression. A specific binding site for GlnR within the nirB promoter was identified and confirmed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay using purified recombinant GlnR. Semiquantitative reverse transcription PCR, as well as microarray analysis, demonstrated upregulation of nirBD expression in response to GlnR under nitrogen-limiting conditions. In summary, we conclude that NarGHJI and NirBD of M. tuberculosis mediate the assimilatory reduction of nitrate and nitrite, respectively, and that GlnR acts as a transcriptional activator of nirBD.
Date Published: 1st Apr 2009
Publication Type: Not specified
PubMed ID: 19332834
Created: 26th May 2010 at 17:18